Sam is a Principal Scientist for Climate, based at NIWA Wellington. He is an expert on using climate models to understand the drivers of climate variability in New Zealand and Antarctica, and in particular human-induced climate change. His research has been able to identify the contribution of human-induced warming to intensifying current New Zealand weather extremes, including droughts and floods. His most recent research has been on the interactions between Antarctic sea-ice, atmospheric circulation and the Southern Ocean. In 2017 he served as a science expert on the Government’s Climate Change Adaptation Technical Working Group, which set out recommendations on how New Zealand should adapt effectively to climate change. He joined NIWA in 2006, and was Chief Scientist for Climate, Atmosphere and Hazards from 2015 to 2018.